• Edward Belongia MD

  • Senior Research Scientist

    • MCRI - MCRI-Clin Epidem and Pop Hlth
    • 1000 North Oak Ave. ML2 Marshfield, WI 54449


Internal Medicine, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics-Residency, Madison, WI
1978 to 1982:
MD, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI
1974 to 1978:
BS, Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

Work Experience

2023 to Present:
Senior Research Scientist, Marshfield Clinic Research Institute, Marshfield, WI
2009 to Present:
Adjunct Professor - Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI
1995 to 2023:
Director, Center for Clinical Epidemiology & Population Health, Marshfield Clinic Research Institute, Marshfield. WI
1990 to 1995:
Public Health Physician, STD Surveillance and Screening Unit, Minnesota Department of Health, Minneapolis, MN
1988 to 1990:
Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Public Health Service

Board Certifications

1985 to Present:
American Board of Internal Medicine


Dr. Belongia is an infectious disease epidemiologist at the Marshfield Clinic Research Institute. He has conducted vaccine safety and effectiveness research for over 20 years with a focus on influenza and respiratory viruses. He received his medical degree from Michigan State University and completed an internal medicine residency at the University of Wisconsin—Madison. Dr. Belongia received epidemiology and public health training from CDC in the Epidemic Intelligence Service. He is a former member of the CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Dr. Belongia is an Adjunct Professor in Population Health Sciences at the University of Wisconsin—Madison, and he serves on ACIP work groups for influenza and COVID-19.

Research Interests

Infectious disease epidemiology
Vaccine effectiveness
Vaccine safety

Select Publications

  • Belongia EA, Sundaram ME, McClure DL, Meece JK, Ferdinands J, VanWormer JJ. Waning vaccine protection against influenza A (H3N2) illness in children and older adults during a single season. VACCINE. 2015 January 1; 33(1):246-51.
    PubMed ID: 24962752
  • Belongia EA, Simpson MD, King JP, Sundaram ME, Kelley NS, Osterholm MT, McLean HQ. Variable influenza vaccine effectiveness by subtype: a systematic review and meta-analysis of test-negative design studies. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016 August; 16(8):942-951.
    PubMed ID: 27061888
  • Belongia EA, Skowronski DM, McLean HQ, Chambers C, Sundaram ME, De Serres G. Repeated annual influenza vaccination and vaccine effectiveness: review of evidence. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2017 July; 16(7):1-14.
    PubMed ID: 28562111
  • Belongia EA. (2017 December 19). Beyond Antigenic Match: Moving Toward Greater Understanding of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness. J Infect Dis. 216(12):1477-1480.
    PubMed ID: 29029175
  • Flannery B, Smith C, Garten RJ, Levine MZ, Chung JR, Jackson ML,...Fry AM [including Belongia EA, McLean HQ.] Influence of Birth Cohort on Effectiveness of 2015-2016 Influenza Vaccine Against Medically Attended Illness Due to 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Virus in the United States. J Infect Dis. 2018 June 20; 218(2):189-196.
    PubMed ID: 29361005
  • King JP, McLean HQ, Meece JK, Levine MZ, Spencer SM, Flannery B, Belongia EA. Vaccine failure and serologic response to live attenuated and inactivated influenza vaccines in children during the 2013-2014 season. VACCINE. 2018 February 21; 36(9):1214-1219.
    PubMed ID: 29395525
  • Dooling KL, Guo A, Patel M, Lee GM, Moore K, Belongia EA, Harpaz R. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for use of herpes zoster vaccines. Am. J. Transplant.. 2018 March; 18(3):756-762.
    PubMed ID: 29462512
  • King JP, McLean HQ, Belongia EA. Validation of Self-Reported Influenza Vaccination in the Current and Prior Season. Influenza Other Respir Viruses.. 2018 November; 12(6):808-813.
    PubMed ID: 30028081
  • Belongia EA, King JP, Kieke BA, Pluta J, Al-Hilli A, Meece JK, Shinde V. Clinical Features, Severity, and Incidence of RSV Illness During 12 Consecutive Seasons in a Community Cohort of Adults =60 Years Old. Open Forum Infect Dis.. 2018 December; 5(12):ofy316.
    PubMed ID: 30619907
  • McLean HQ, Caspard H, Griffin MR, Gaglani M, Peters TR, Poehling KA,...Belongia EA. Association of Prior Vaccination With Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in Children Receiving Live Attenuated or Inactivated Vaccine. JAMA Netw Open. 2018 October 5; 1(6):e183742.
    PubMed ID: 30646262
  • Belongia EA, Karron RA, Reingold A, Walter EB, Bennett NM. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendation regarding the use of live influenza vaccine: A rejoinder. VACCINE. 2018 January 8; 36(3):343-344.
    PubMed ID: 28684166
  • Havers FP, Chung JR, Belongia EA, McLean HQ, Gaglani M, Murthy K,...Flannery B. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness and Statin Use Among Adults in the United States, 2011-2017. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 May 2; 68(10):1616-1622.
    PubMed ID: 30371753
  • Belongia EA, McLean HQ. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness: Defining the H3N2 Problem. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 October 30; 69(10):1817-1823.
    PubMed ID: 31102401
  • Weinmann S, Naleway AL, Koppolu P, Baxter R, Belongia EA, Hambidge SJ,...Chun C. Incidence of Herpes Zoster Among Children: 2003-2014. PEDIATRICS. 2019 July; 144(1)
    PubMed ID: 31182552
  • Hanson KE, McLean HQ, Belongia EA, Stokley S, McNeil MM, Gee J, VanWormer JJ. Sociodemographic and clinical correlates of human papillomavirus vaccine attitudes and receipt among Wisconsin adolescents. Papillomavirus Res. 2019 December; 8 :100168. PMCID: PMC6556618.
    PubMed ID: 31136831
  • Donahue JG, Kieke BA, King JP, Mascola MA, Shimabukuro TT, DeStefano F,...Belongia EA [including Hanson KE, McClure DL, Olaiya O.] Inactivated influenza vaccine and spontaneous abortion in the Vaccine Safety Datalink in 2012-13, 2013-14, and 2014-15. VACCINE. 2019 October 16; 37(44):6673-6681.
    PubMed ID: 31540812
  • Donahue JG, Kieke BA, Lewis EM, Weintraub ES, Hanson KE, McClure DL,...Belongia EA [including Vickers ER.] Near Real-Time Surveillance to Assess the Safety of the 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine. PEDIATRICS. 2019 December; 144(6)
    PubMed ID: 31740498
  • Flannery B, Chung JR, Monto AS, Martin ET, Belongia EA, McLean HQ,...Fry AM. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in the United States During the 2016-2017 Season. Clin. Infect. Dis.. 2019 May 17; 68(11):1798-1806. PMCID: PMC6522684.
    PubMed ID: 30204854
  • McLean HQ, King JP, Talley P, Flannery B, Spencer S, Levine MZ,...Belongia EA. Effect of Previous-Season Influenza Vaccination on Serologic Response in Children During 3 Seasons, 2013-2014 Through 2015-2016. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2020 April 30; 9(2):173-180.
    PubMed ID: 30759228
  • Florek K, Mutschler J, McLean HQ, King JP, Flannery B, Belongia EA, Friedrich TC. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity antibody responses to inactivated and live-attenuated influenza vaccination in children during 2014-15. VACCINE. 2020 February 18; 38(8):2088-2094.
    PubMed ID: 31753674
  • McLean HQ, Hanson KE, Foster AD, Olson SC, Kemble SK, Belongia EA. Serious outcomes of medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza illness among school-aged children with and without asthma, 2007-2018. Influenza Other Respir Viruses.. 2020 March; 14(2):173-181.
    PubMed ID: 31944583
  • King JP, Hanson KE, Donahue JG, Glanz JM, Klein NP, Naleway AL,...Belongia EA. Survey of influenza vaccine knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among pregnant women in the 2016-17 season. VACCINE. 2020 February 24; 38(9):2202-2208.
    PubMed ID: 31992481
  • McLean HQ, Belongia EA. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness: New Insights and Challenges. [published online ahead of print 2020 January 27]. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med.
    PubMed ID: 31988202
  • Belongia EA, Levine MZ, Olaiya O, Gross FL, King JP, McLean HQ, Flannery B. Clinical trial to assess immunogenicity of high-dose, adjuvanted, and recombinant influenza vaccines against cell-grown A(H3N2) viruses in adults 65 to 74 years, 2017-2018. [published online ahead of print 2020 March 4]. VACCINE.
    PubMed ID: 32145994
  • Chung JR, Flannery B, Gaglani M, Smith ME, Reis EC, Hickey RW,...Patel MM [including Belongia EA, McLean HQ.] Patterns of Influenza Vaccination and Vaccine Effectiveness Among Young US Children Who Receive Outpatient Care for Acute Respiratory Tract Illness. [published online ahead of print 2020 May 4]. JAMA Pediatr. PMCID: PMC7199168.
    PubMed ID: 32364599
  • Kieke BA, Belongia EA, McClure DL, Shinde V. Prediction of serious RSV-related outcomes in older adults with outpatient RSV respiratory illness during 12 consecutive seasons. Influenza Other Respir Viruses.. 2020 September; 14(5):479-482.
    PubMed ID: 32390298
  • Belongia EA, Osterholm MT. COVID-19 and flu, a perfect storm. SCIENCE. 2020 June 12; 368(6496):1163.
    PubMed ID: 32527804
  • Arevalo P, McLean HQ, Belongia EA, Cobey S. Earliest infections predict the age distribution of seasonal influenza A cases. [published online ahead of print 2020 July 7]. Elife. 9
    PubMed ID: 32633233
  • Grijalva CG, Rolfes MA, McLean HQ, Hanson KE, Belongia EA, Halasa NB,...Talbot HK. Transmission of SARS-COV-2 Infections in Households - Tennessee and Wisconsin, April-September 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 November 6; 69(44):1631-1634. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6944e1.
    PubMed ID: 33151916
  • Tenforde MW, Chung J, Smith ER, Talbot HK, Trabue CH, Zimmerman RK,...Patel MM [including McLean HQ, Belongia EA.] Influenza vaccine effectiveness in inpatient and outpatient settings in the United States, 2015 - 2018. Clin Infect Dis. 2021 August 2; 73(3):386-392.
    PubMed ID: 32270198
  • Tenforde MW, Kondor RJG, Chung JR, Zimmerman RK, Nowalk MP, Jackson ML,...Flannery B [including Belongia EA, McLean HQ.] Effect of antigenic drift on influenza vaccine effectiveness in the United States - 2019-2020. Clin Infect Dis. 2021 December 6; 73(11):e4244-e4250.
    PubMed ID: 33367650
  • Chung JR, Flannery B, Kim SS, Gaglani M, Raiyani C, Belongia EA,...Patel M [including McLean HQ.] Sample size considerations for mid-season estimates from a large influenza vaccine effectiveness network in the United States. [published online ahead of print 2021 May 13]. Vaccine.
    PubMed ID: 33994240
  • Rolfes MA, Grijalva CG, Zhu Y, McLean HQ, Hanson KE, Belongia EA,...Fry AM [including Meece J.] Implications of Shortened Quarantine Among Household Contacts of Index Patients with Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 Infection - Tennessee and Wisconsin, April-September 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 January 1; 69(5152):1633-1637.
    PubMed ID: 33382676
  • Liles E, Irving SA, Dandamudi P, Belongia EA, Daley MF, DeStefano F,...Naleway AL. Incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease within the Vaccine Safety Datalink network and evaluation of association with rotavirus vaccination. [published online ahead of print 2021 May 26]. Vaccine.
    PubMed ID: 34052066
  • King JP, McLean HQ, Belongia EA. Risk of symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection not associated with influenza vaccination in the 2019-2020 season. Influenza Other Respir Viruses.. 2021 November; 15(6):697-700.
    PubMed ID: 34169670
  • Kim SS, Chung JR, Belongia EA, McLean HQ, King JP, Nowalk MP,...Flannery B. mRNA Vaccine Effectiveness against COVID-19 among Symptomatic Outpatients Aged =16 Years in the United States, February - May 2021. J Infect Dis. 2021 November 22; 224(10):1694-1698.
    PubMed ID: 34498052
  • McLean HQ, Grijalva CG, Hanson KE, Zhu YG, Deyoe JE, Meece JK,...Rolfes MA [including Belongia EA.] Household Transmission and Clinical Features of SARS-CoV-2 Infections by Age in 2 US Communities. medRxiv. 2021 August 20; PMCID: PMC8382134.
    PubMed ID: 34426817
  • McLean HQ, McClure DL, King JP, Meece JK, Pattinson D, Neumann G,...Belongia EA. mRNA COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection in a prospective community cohort, rural Wisconsin, November 2020 to December 2021. Influenza Other Respir Viruses.. 2022 July; 16(4):607-612.
    PubMed ID: 35178857
  • Sundaram ME, Kieke BA, Hanson KE, Belongia EA, Weintraub ES, Daley MF,...Donahue JG. Extended surveillance to assess safety of 9-valent human papillomavirus vaccine. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2022 December 30; 18(7):2159215.
    PubMed ID: 36577134
  • Rolfes MA, Talbot HK, McLean HQ, Stockwell MS, Ellingson KD, Lutrick K,...Belongia, EA [including Meece JK.] Household Transmission of Influenza A Viruses in 2021-2022. JAMA. 2023 February 14; 329(6):482-489. doi: 10.1001/jama.2023.0064. PMCID: PMC9880862.
    PubMed ID: 36701144
  • McLean HQ, Petrie JG, Hanson KE, Meece JK, Rolfes MA, Sylvester GC,...Belongia EA. Interim Estimates of 2022-23 Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness - Wisconsin, October 2022-February 2023. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2023 February 24; 72(8):201-205. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7208a1. PMCID: PMC9949852.
    PubMed ID: 36821715
  • Hanson KE, Marin M, Daley MF, Groom HC, Jackson LA, Sy LS,...McLean HQ [including Belongia EA.] Safety of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in adolescents and adults in the vaccine safety Datalink. Vaccine X. 2023 February 4; 13 :100268. PMCID: PMC9939709.
    PubMed ID: 36814595
  • Petrie JG, King JP, McClure DL, Rolfes MA, Meece JK, Pattinson D,...McLean HQ [including Belongia EA.] Effectiveness of first and second COVID-19 mRNA vaccine monovalent booster doses during a period of circulation of Omicron variant sublineages: December 2021-July 2022. Influenza Other Respir Viruses.. 2023 March; 17(3):e13104. doi: 10.1111/irv.13104. PMCID: PMC9975792.
    PubMed ID: 36875208
  • Hood N, Flannery B, Gaglani M, Beeram M, Wernli K, Jackson ML,...Chung JR [including Belongia EA, McLean HQ.] Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Among Children: 2011-2020. PEDIATRICS. 2023 April 1; 151(4)doi: 10.1542/peds.2022-059922. PMCID: PMC10071433.
    PubMed ID: 36960655
  • Irving SA, Groom HC, Belongia EA, Crane B, Daley MF, Goddard K,...Weintraub ES. Influenza vaccination coverage among persons ages six months and older in the Vaccine Safety Datalink in the 2017-18 through 2022-23 influenza seasons. VACCINE. 2023 November 22;41(48):7138-7146. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2023.10.023.
    PubMed ID: 37866991
  • Smith-Jeffcoat SE, Biddle JE, Talbot HK, Morrisey KG, Stockwell MS, Maldonado Y,...Belongia, Ed [including McLean HQ, Petrie JG.] Symptoms, viral loads, and rebound among COVID-19 outpatients treated with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir compared to propensity score matched untreated individuals. [published online ahead of print 2023 November 14]. Clin Infect Dis. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciad696.
    PubMed ID: 37963102
  • Belongia EA, Petrie JG, Feldstein LR, Guan L, Halfmann PJ, King JP,...Kawaoka Y [including McLean HQ.] Neutralizing Immunity Against Antigenically Advanced Omicron BA.5 in Children After SARS-CoV-2 Infection. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2024 January 29;13(1):100-104. doi: 10.1093/jpids/piad109.
    PubMed ID: 38142128
  • Sumner KM, Yadav R, Noble EK, Sandford R, Joshi D, Tartof SY,...Flannery B [including Belongia EA.] Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Levels Associated with COVID-19 Protection in Outpatients Tested for SARS-CoV-2, US Flu VE Network, October 2021-June 2022. [published online ahead of print 2024 February 23]. J Infect Dis. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiae090.
    PubMed ID: 38390968
  • King JP, Chung JR, Donahue JG, Martin ET, Leis AM, Monto AS,...Belongia EA. Post-recovery health domain scores among outpatients by SARS-CoV-2 testing status during the pre-Delta period. BMC Infect Dis. 2024 March 8;24(1):300. doi: 10.1186/s12879-024-09108-3. PMCID: PMC10921777.
    PubMed ID: 38454352
  • Pattinson D, Jester P, Gu C, Guan L, Armbrust T, Petrie JG,...Kawaoka Y [including King JP, Nguyen HQ, Belongia EA.] Ipsilateral and contralateral coadministration of influenza and COVID-19 vaccines produce similar antibody responses. [published online ahead of print 2024 April 3]. EBioMedicine. 103:105103. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2024.105103.
    PubMed ID: 38574407